How to Transfer Files with Rsync over SSH – Google Cloud. Rsync is one of the most important tool in mirroring data, copying files to remote systems or servers. This tool has more functions compared to
In this guide you are going to learn how to transfer files using Rsync to any servers.
This setup is tested on Google Cloud Platform.
In some servers you will have
rsync installed by default. If you don’t have rsync installed you can install it using the following command.
- SSH access to the server with read and write permissions.
- If you are using this on Google Cloud, you need to setup SSH keys. You can follow this guide to setup SSH keys from Windows machine.
Ubuntu and Debian
sudo apt install rsync
CentOS and Fedora
sudo yum install rsync
Setup Permissions on Target server
You can provide permissions using the
acl command on the directories and provide the appropriate permissions.
If you dont have
acl installed you can use the below command to install ACL.
sudo apt install acl
Once you have acl installed you can execute the following command to setup permissions on the target or remote server.
sudo setfacl -R -m u:username:rwx /path/to/your/folder
Transfer Files using Rsync with SSH Keys
This is the syntax of the rsync command for transferring files using Rsync with public and private key based authentication.
Make sure you have added the public key to the target server.
rsync -a -e "ssh -i path/to/private-key" path/to/source-files username@External_IP:/path/in/the/target-server
Transfer Files using Rsync with SSH Password
You can simply use the following command to use the password based authentication.
rsync -a -e ssh path/to/source-files username@External_IP:/path/in/the/target-server
Once this command is executed you will be prompted to enter the password of the user.
General Details of Rsync
Generally if the file exists on the remote server it will get overwritten.
There are many options you can use, in the above command we are using
-a option which syncs directories recursively, transfer special and block devices, preserve symbolic links, modification times, group, ownership, and permissions.
By default Rsync with SSH uses the standard SSH port 22, if you are using a different port for your SSH you need to specify the port using the -p option.
rsync -a -e "ssh -p port" path/to/source-files username@External_IP:/path/in/the/target-server
Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer to the detailed description below for a complete description.
-v, --verbose increase verbosity -q, --quiet suppress non-error messages --no-motd suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat) -c, --checksum skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size -a, --archive archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X) --no-OPTION turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D) -r, --recursive recurse into directories -R, --relative use relative path names --no-implied-dirs don't send implied dirs with --relative -b, --backup make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir) --backup-dir=DIR make backups into hierarchy based in DIR --suffix=SUFFIX backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir) -u, --update skip files that are newer on the receiver --inplace update destination files in-place --append append data onto shorter files --append-verify --append w/old data in file checksum -d, --dirs transfer directories without recursing -l, --links copy symlinks as symlinks -L, --copy-links transform symlink into referent file/dir --copy-unsafe-links only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed --safe-links ignore symlinks that point outside the tree -k, --copy-dirlinks transform symlink to dir into referent dir -K, --keep-dirlinks treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir -H, --hard-links preserve hard links -p, --perms preserve permissions -E, --executability preserve executability --chmod=CHMOD affect file and/or directory permissions -A, --acls preserve ACLs (implies -p) -X, --xattrs preserve extended attributes -o, --owner preserve owner (super-user only) -g, --group preserve group --devices preserve device files (super-user only) --specials preserve special files -D same as --devices --specials -t, --times preserve modification times -O, --omit-dir-times omit directories from --times --super receiver attempts super-user activities --fake-super store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs -S, --sparse handle sparse files efficiently -n, --dry-run perform a trial run with no changes made -W, --whole-file copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm) -x, --one-file-system don't cross filesystem boundaries -B, --block-size=SIZE force a fixed checksum block-size -e, --rsh=COMMAND specify the remote shell to use --rsync-path=PROGRAM specify the rsync to run on remote machine --existing skip creating new files on receiver --ignore-existing skip updating files that exist on receiver --remove-source-files sender removes synchronized files (non-dir) --del an alias for --delete-during --delete delete extraneous files from dest dirs --delete-before receiver deletes before transfer (default) --delete-during receiver deletes during xfer, not before --delete-delay find deletions during, delete after --delete-after receiver deletes after transfer, not before --delete-excluded also delete excluded files from dest dirs --ignore-errors delete even if there are I/O errors --force force deletion of dirs even if not empty --max-delete=NUM don't delete more than NUM files --max-size=SIZE don't transfer any file larger than SIZE --min-size=SIZE don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE --partial keep partially transferred files --partial-dir=DIR put a partially transferred file into DIR --delay-updates put all updated files into place at end -m, --prune-empty-dirs prune empty directory chains from file-list --numeric-ids don't map uid/gid values by user/group name --timeout=SECONDS set I/O timeout in seconds --contimeout=SECONDS set daemon connection timeout in seconds -I, --ignore-times don't skip files that match size and time --size-only skip files that match in size --modify-window=NUM compare mod-times with reduced accuracy -T, --temp-dir=DIR create temporary files in directory DIR -y, --fuzzy find similar file for basis if no dest file --compare-dest=DIR also compare received files relative to DIR --copy-dest=DIR ... and include copies of unchanged files --link-dest=DIR hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged -z, --compress compress file data during the transfer --compress-level=NUM explicitly set compression level --skip-compress=LIST skip compressing files with suffix in LIST -C, --cvs-exclude auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does -f, --filter=RULE add a file-filtering RULE -F same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter' repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter' --exclude=PATTERN exclude files matching PATTERN --exclude-from=FILE read exclude patterns from FILE --include=PATTERN don't exclude files matching PATTERN --include-from=FILE read include patterns from FILE --files-from=FILE read list of source-file names from FILE -0, --from0 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s -s, --protect-args no space-splitting; wildcard chars only --address=ADDRESS bind address for outgoing socket to daemon --port=PORT specify double-colon alternate port number --sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options --blocking-io use blocking I/O for the remote shell --stats give some file-transfer stats -8, --8-bit-output leave high-bit chars unescaped in output -h, --human-readable output numbers in a human-readable format --progress show progress during transfer -P same as --partial --progress -i, --itemize-changes output a change-summary for all updates --out-format=FORMAT output updates using the specified FORMAT --log-file=FILE log what we're doing to the specified FILE --log-file-format=FMT log updates using the specified FMT --password-file=FILE read daemon-access password from FILE --list-only list the files instead of copying them --bwlimit=KBPS limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second --write-batch=FILE write a batched update to FILE --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest --read-batch=FILE read a batched update from FILE --protocol=NUM force an older protocol version to be used --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC request charset conversion of filenames --checksum-seed=NUM set block/file checksum seed (advanced) -4, --ipv4 prefer IPv4 -6, --ipv6 prefer IPv6 --version print version number -h) --help show this help (see below for -h comment)
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Now you have learned how to use Rsync to transfer files to and from your server.
Thanks for your time. If you face any problem or any feedback, please leave a comment below.